Freeze-Thaw Damage

Masonry walls are generally highly durable. However, when masonry walls in cold climates stay too wet for too long, freeze-thaw damage can occur. This issue has particular relevance for energy efficiency retrofits, because the addition of interior insulation causes the masonry to stay colder and have a lower drying potential.

The following documents present details of BSC’s research and experience regarding the prevention of freeze-thaw damage in retrofit projects. Technical topics such as the critical degree of saturation (Scrit) are discussed, and case studies and recommendations are provided.

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BA

BA-1404: Initial and Long Term Movement of Cladding Installed Over Exterior Rigid Insulation

By Peter Baker
Download.pdf  2.8 MB

BA

BA-1403: Guidance on Modeling Enclosure Design in Above Grade Walls: Expert Meeting Report

By Kohta Ueno and Joseph Lstiburek
Download.pdf  4.4 MB

CP

CP-1301: Field Monitoring and Simulation of a Historic Mass Masonry Building Retrofitted with Interior Insulation

By Kohta Ueno
Download.pdf  1.0 MB

BA

BA-1314: Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

By Peter Baker and Robert Lepage
Download.pdf  3.7 MB

BSI

BSI-071: Joni Mitchell, Water and Walls

By Joseph Lstiburek
Download.pdf  338.1 KB

BA

BA-1311: Evaluation of Two CEDA Weatherization Pilot Implementations of an Exterior Insulation and Over-Clad Retrofit Strategy for Residential Masonry Buildings in Chicago

By Ken Neuhauser
Download.pdf  7.2 MB

GM

Mass Save Deep Energy Retrofit Builder Guide

By Betsy Pettit, FAIA, Ken Neuhauser, Cathy Gates
Download.pdf  6.1 MB

CP

CP-1201: Masonry Wall Insulation Interior Embedded Beam Simulations

By Kohta Ueno
Download.pdf  2.1 MB

BA

BA-1307: Interior Insulation of Mass Masonry Walls: Joist Monitoring, Material Test Optimization, Salt Effects

By Kohta Ueno, Randy Van Straaten, Chris Schumacher
Download.pdf  6.9 MB

BA

BA-1302: Retrofit of a Multi-family Mass Masonry Building in New England

By Ueno/Kerrigan/Wytrykowska/Van Straaten
Download.pdf  15.5 MB

BA

BA-1202: Byggmeister Test Home—Cold Climate Multifamily Masonry Building Condition Assessment and Retrofit Analysis

By Honorata Wytrykowska, Kohta Ueno, Randy Van Straaten
Download.pdf  7.4 MB

BA

BA-1204: External Insulation of Masonry Walls and Wood Framed Walls

By Peter Baker
Download.pdf  12.4 MB

BA

BA-1108: Hybrid Foundation Insulation Retrofits: Measure Guidelines

By Kohta Ueno and Joseph Lstiburek
Download.pdf  4.5 MB

BA

BA-1105: Internal Insulation of Masonry Walls: Final Measure Guideline

By John Straube, Kohta Ueno and Christopher Schumacher
Download.pdf  6.8 MB

CP

CP-1101: The Influence of Low-Permeance Vapor Barriers on Roof and Wall Performance

By John Straube
Download.pdf  274.3 KB

BSI

BSI-047: Thick as a Brick

By Joseph Lstiburek
Download.pdf  681.8 KB

CP

CP-1013: Assessing the Freeze-Thaw Resistance of Clay Brick for Interior Insulation Retrofit Projects

By Straube/Schumacher/Mensinga
Download.pdf  253.2 KB

BSI

BSI-042: Historical Development of the Building Enclosure

By John Straube
Download.pdf  359.4 KB

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