Damage that occurs to stone, clay, or cementitious products due to high moisture content (near saturation) combined with cycling above and below the freezing temperature. Typically manifested as spalling of the surface.

Related terms: Spall

Related resources: The Masonry Retrofit Project; CP-1013: Assessing the Freeze-Thaw Resistance of Clay Brick for Interior Insulation Retrofit Projects, BSI-047: Thick as a Brick