Conference Papers

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BSC File application/x-troff-me CP-9907: Measured Air Change Rates and Distribution Ventilation Air in a Single Family Home
A single-story, single-family, 1350 sq. ft. house located in Las Vegas, NV was outfitted with two separate ventilation systems. The systems were independent of each other, and were operated at different times to evaluate the relative difference in air change rate and distribution of ventilation air induced by their operation.
BSC File CP-9404: Measured and Predicted Energy Savings from an Industrialized House
Side-by-side energy testing and monitoring was conducted on two houses in Louisville, KY.
BSC File application/onenote CP-9402: Establishing Priorities for the Design of Affordable, Environmentally Responsible Housing in Dallas, Texas, a Mixed Climate Zone
Twelve affordable, healthy, environmentally responsible single family houses were designed and built on an urban infill in Dallas, Texas.
BSC File C header CP-9302: Humidity Control in the Humid South
Humidity concerns in the southern humid climates are particularly difficult to resolve. This is because one of the most effective approaches to dealing with humidity in heating climates, ventilation, can cause major humidity problems in the humid south.
BSC File ECMAScript program CP-1103: New England Net Zero Production Houses
This paper was first presented at the 2011 ASHRAE Annual Conference. A homebuilder in the New England area has been building net zero energy single family homes since 2008 and is continuing with multiple small-scale subdivisions of 20 or more homes. This builder specializes in net zero affordable homes and sustainable net zero communities, while retaining houses with a familiar local vernacular appearance.
BSC File CP-1201: Masonry Wall Insulation Interior Embedded Beam Simulations
There is a large existing stock of uninsulated mass masonry buildings: their uninsulated walls result in poor energy performance, which is commonly addressed with the retrofit of interior insulation. Some durability issues associated with interior insulation have been or are being addressed, such as interstitial condensation and freeze-thaw damage issues. However, another durability risk is the hygrothermal behavior of moisture-sensitive wood beams embedded in the load-bearing masonry. Interior insulation reduces the beam end temperatures, reduces available drying potential, and results in higher relative humidity conditions in the beam pocket: all of these factors pose a greater risk to durability.
BSC File CP-1102: San Francisco Bay Area Net Zero Urban Infill
This paper was first presented at the 2011 ASHRAE Annual Conference. A startup builder in the San Francisco Bay Area has a goal of producing factory built/modular houses with net zero energy performance. Their first prototype was a two-story, two bedroom, urban infill townhouse design. It has been in operation for roughly a year, and has been extensively measured and monitored, providing information about its net zero performance.
BSC File CP-1101: The Influence of Low-Permeance Vapor Barriers on Roof and Wall Performance
Low-permeance vapor barriers are widely used on the interior of wall and roof systems in large parts of North America. Many codes and standards imply or even state that low-permeance vapor barriers should be used in all cold regions as well as many moderate climate zones. The influence of vapor barriers on the hygrothermal performance of wall and roof systems is a function of exterior climate, interior climate, solar absorptance, rainwater absorption, and the vapor and thermal resistance of all of the layers in the system. In many practical situations, a low-permeance vapor barrier will not improve hygrothermal performance and may in fact increase the likelihood of damaging condensation or trap moisture in the system. This paper will examine the role of vapor barriers on hygrothermal performance with the aid of simple and transparent diffusion calculations supported by measurements from full-scale natural exposure monitoring. The phenomenon of summertime condensation, the drying of roofs and walls, and multiple vapor barrier layers will be explored. The importance of properly assessing both the interior and exterior climate will be discussed. Vapor diffusion control strategies will be presented.
BSC File text/texmacs CP-1013: Assessing the Freeze-Thaw Resistance of Clay Brick for Interior Insulation Retrofit Projects
This paper is from the proceedings of the Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings XI International Conference, December 5-9, 2010 in Clearwater, Florida. This paper summarizes some of the limitations of the various approaches to assessing the freeze-thaw resistance of brick masonry units and presents a detailed methodology for using frost dilatometry to determine the critical degree of saturation of brick material. Test results are presented for bricks from several historical load-bearing masonry. Recommendations are made for applying this approach together with hygrothermal model in the design of retrofit insulation projects.
BSC File Troff document CP-1012: Residential Exterior Wall Superinsulation Retrofit Details and Analysis
This paper is from the proceedings of the Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings XI International Conference, December 5-9, 2010 in Clearwater, Florida. The issues of climate change, energy security, and economics are all strong drivers for improving energy efficiency levels in a variety of sectors. In residential construction, although some inroads have been made in new houses, the stock of existing housing represents a huge opportunity for energy retrofits. The vanguard of these efforts has been pushing toward retrofitting very high insulation levels (i.e., “superinsulation,” or “deep energy retrofits”). Several cold-climate residential retrofit projects have been completed using an exterior insulation approach on light-frame above-grade walls. This type of retrofit is a reasonable step if a recladding of the building is already being done for aesthetic or ongoing maintenance reasons. The methods demonstrated here result in walls with insulation levels in the R-35 to R-40 range. This paper presents many of the lessons learned from these experiences, including overall enclosure strategies, such as air barriers, drainage planes, and moisture control. Several case-specific solutions to particular problems are described, including exterior air barrier approaches, wall sill replacement, and several approaches dealing with window penetrations. In addition, detailing recommendations and economic analysis of these measures are presented. Hygrothermal simulations were run to evaluate the changes in sensitivity to moisture intrusion due to these retrofit measures.
BSC File application/x-troff-me CP-1011: Evaluation of Cladding and Water-Resistive Barrier Performance in Hot-Humid Climates Using a Real-Weather, Real-Time Test Facility
This paper is from the proceedings of the Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings XI International Conference, December 5-9, 2010 in Clearwater, Florida.The objective of this project was to evaluate the performance of typical residential wall systems that incorporate water-resistive barriers with a range of vapor permeability. These systems included both absorbent and nonabsorbent claddings in hot-humid climates for direct comparison. This paper describes the test design, the test facility construction and installation, and the resulting data. The testing included both environmental exposure and point-source water leakage. The approach chosen was to use a real-time natural exposure test hut located in Tampa, FL. This test facility had wall specimens inserted in the long sides of the hut, 16 wall specimens per side. Duplicate wall specimens were used on each side for exposure related comparisons. There was an on-site weather station to monitor local weather conditions necessary for experimental analysis. The interior conditions were controlled by point-terminated HVAC. Wall specimens were instrumented with a variety of temperature, humidity, and wood moisture content sensors for remote monitoring. In addition to natural weather exposure, the wall specimens were periodically wetted to simulate rain leakage by a water injection system.
BSC File CP-1010: Innovative Passive Ventilation Water-Resistive Barriers—How Do They Work?
This paper is from the proceedings of the Thermal Performance of the Exterior Envelopes of Whole Buildings XI International Conference, December 5-9, 2010 in Clearwater, Florida. The issue of solar driven moisture that is associated with water absorptive claddings has often been raised, and it is becoming increasingly relevant as the demand for improved energy efficiency buildings continues to rise. Improved energy efficiency building enclosures generally means an increase in R-value and reduced air leakage, which commonly reduces the drying potential of wall assemblies. Essentially, less energy is available from inside the structure to assist the transport of moisture away from the building enclosure. As energy efficiency requirements are pushing towards zero-energy structures, passive means the sun or wind become more critical approaches for achieving enhanced drying. This paper investigates the hygrothermal performance of wall assemblies with brick veneer cladding as well as manufactured adhered stone veneer with two different types of water resistive barriers. One type is a conventional spunbonded polyolefin-based WRB, and the other type is an innovative three-dimensional dual ventilated sheet. This paper not only shows field-monitored data for both assemblies, but it also explains the building physics involved in both systems. The field performance data is based on one year-long field studies with wood-framed test walls installed on the north and south side of test huts located in Charleston, SC and Waterloo, ON. This paper demonstrates the beneficial effects of passively driven airflow through both solar and wind forces allowing small amounts of air flow to provide a significant increase in drying potential to walls that include dual ventilation water resistive barriers. Results show that the three-dimensional dual ventilated WRB not only provides enhanced drying potential by deploying passive solar energy, but it also provides a control layer against warm-weather inward vapor drives from the absorptive claddings, which have been implicated as reasons for numerous moisture related problems.
BSC File CP-1002: Preliminary Modeling, Testing and Analysis of a Gas Tankless Water Heater
Tankless water heaters offer significant energy savings over conventional storage-tank water heaters, because thermal losses to the environment are much less. Although standard test results are available to compare tankless heaters with storage tank heaters, actual savings depend on the draw details because energy to heat up the internal mass depends on the time since the last draw. To allow accurate efficiency estimates under any assumed draw pattern, a one-node model with heat exchanger mass is posed here. Key model parameters were determined from test data. Burner efficiency showed inconsistency between the two data sets analyzed. Model calculations show that efficiency with a realistic draw pattern is ~8% lower than that resulting from using only large ~40 liter draws, as specified in standard water-heater tests. The model is also used to indicate that adding a small tank controlled by the tankless heater ameliorates unacceptable oscillations that tankless with feedback control can experience with pre-heated water too hot for the minimum burner setting. The added tank also eliminates problematic low-flow cut-out and hot-water delay, but it will slightly decrease efficiency. Future work includes model refinements and developing optimal protocols for parameter extraction.
BSC File CP-0910: Measuring the Impact of Interior Insulation on Solid Masonry Walls in a Cold Climate
This paper describes a fully instrumented large-scale mock-up completed in a southern Ontario private school to allow direct comparisons between insulated and non-insulated walls with a focus on the evaluation of freeze-thaw and corrosion risks. Climate conditions and wall temperature, relative humidity and moisture content are compared and discussed. Climate conditions (wetting and temperature) over the monitoring period were less severe than average. As a result, measured values were used to refine computer models to simulate wall performance under more severe climate conditions.
BSC File CP-0909: A Calibrated Multi-Zone Airflow Model for Extension of Ventilation System Tracer Gas Testing
The software CONTAM was used to create a calibrated mulit-zone model to replicate in-field tracer gas decay measurements of a new two story, 2,600 sq. ft., single-family house in Sacramento, CA under different whole-house dilution ventilation scenarios. This report was first published in ASHRAE Transactions (17, Louisville 2009). American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA. Reprinted with permission.
BSC File CP-0908: A Method for Modifying Ventilation Airflow Rates to Achieve Equivalent Occupant Exposure
A calibrated ventilation model was exercised over a range of parameters seen in new and existing housing in the United States. This report was first published in ASHRAE Transactions (17, Louisville 2009). American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GA. Reprinted with permission.
BSC File CP-0904: Adhered Veneers and Inward Vapor Drives: Significance, Problems, and Solutions
This paper reports on field measurements collected from over a year of monitoring two types of wood-framed walls: one with an air gap membrane and another installed following standard practice. Each type of wall was faced either north or south in a test hut located in southwestern Ontario.
BSC File application/x-troff-ms CP-0802: Field Test of Room-to-Room Distribution of Outside Air with Two Residential Ventilation Systems
Uniform distribution of outside air is one way to ensure that residential dilution ventilation systems will provide a known amount of fresh air to all rooms regardless of house geometry and occupant behavior.
BSC File ECMAScript program CP-0702: Monitored Indoor Moisture and Temperature Conditions in Hot-Humid US Residences
Indoor moisture and temperature conditions and equipment operation were measured and analyzed for 43 homes in warm-humid and mixed-humid climate regions of the United States.
BSC File CP-0605: Assessing the Durability Impacts of Energy Efficient Enclosure Upgrades Using Hygrothermal Modeling
This paper examines methods of using hygrothermal models, primarily WUFI, to assess the impact of energy efficient enclosure upgrades on the durability of historical buildings. Means of producing and choosing input data for the hygrothermal simulation are discussed. Methods for using the hourly results from the simulations to generate a corrosion index and a freeze-thaw count are developed. An example wall is used to demonstrate the type of output that can be expected and how this can be used in making retrofit design decisions.
BSC File CP-0604: Incorporating Insulating Sheathing into the Design of the Thermal and Moisture Management System of the Building Enclosure
With rising utility cost, concerns over availability of natural resources, and environmental impacts of our energy production and use, a push has been made to design buildings to minimize energy consumption in an attempt to work towards more sustainable communities. Creating more thermally efficient building enclosures is a necessary part of achieving this goal. The thermal resistance provided by insulating a stud cavity is limited by the standard framing sizes currently used in the United States and Canada. The options therefore are to either increase the depth of the studs used, add insulation to the interior of the wall assembly, or to add extra insulation to the exterior of the assembly. Providing rigid insulating sheathing to the exterior of a wall assembly is a technique that has been used in cold climates for more than 40 years. Recently it has begun to be integrated into enclosure designs in all climates. As with any newly adopted technology, there can be concerns for its proper application. This paper examines methods of incorporating insulating sheathing into the thermal and moisture management systems of the building enclosure in a variety of climate zones across North America. This is done through examining the material properties of the various products and how these properties can be used to achieve an energy efficient and durable building enclosure design, while avoiding problems relating moisture accumulation and degradation of materials.
BSC File D source code CP-9001: Description of an Indoor Test Facility for Evaluating a Roof Integrated Cooling Concept
The effects of solar heating potential and nocturnal cooling potential are simulated in a controlled indoor environment and extensive measurements are made along and between the boundary surfaces. Air delivered to the test section is controlled to close tolerances in temperature, humidity and flow rate. Steady state conditions, step changes, functional changes or real weather conditions can be simulated. Accurate measurements are taken at the inlet and outlet of the test section to determine the amount of heat and mass transfer across the system. The facility is completely computer controlled. The control software, employing a self-tuning proportional integral control methodology, was developed in house. A description of both the DESRAD concept and the Diurnal Test Facility is presented here along with examples of the model verification data and a brief measurement uncertainty analysis.
BSC File CP-0705: Field Performance of an Unvented Cathedral Ceiling (UCC) in Vancouver
Numerous arguments have been made in favor of the use of unvented cathedralized attic (UCA) assemblies in a variety ofclimates and applications. UCA assemblies, created by eliminating ventilation and by moving the thermal insulation and air barrier from the ceiling plane to the rafters, immediately below the roof deck, are increasingly common in low-rise residential construction in the hot-humid and hot-dry southern United States. Unvented cathedral ceilings (UCCs) are similar to UCAs with the exception that the interior finish is also installed on the underside of or between the rafters rather than on the underside of the ceiling joists or collar ties. The test program described in this paper sets out to determine whether or not an assembly that meets the new IRC code requirements but is constructed without a vapor barrier and using an air impermeable, vapor permeable, low-density, open-cell sprayed polyurethane foam insulation can perform satisfactorily in the cold wet climates of Seattle, WA and Vancouver, BC (Zone 4C).
BSC File CP-1301: Field Monitoring and Simulation of a Historic Mass Masonry Building Retrofitted with Interior Insulation
Load-bearing masonry buildings are a significant portion of the existing building stock; however, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold, and particularly cold and wet, climates may cause performance and durability problems in some cases. Exterior insulation provides the ideal conditions for building durability; however, many buildings cannot be retrofitted with insulation on the exterior for reasons such as historic preservation, aesthetics, zoning, or space restrictions. A circa 1917 construction mass masonry building located on a Boston-area university campus was retrofitted with interior polyurethane spray foam insulation; the building is on the National Historic Register. Sensors were installed in the retrofitted walls to measure temperature and moisture conditions within the assembly; interior and exterior boundary conditions were also monitored. Experimental variables included orientation (north and south), spatial location of monitoring, and assembly type (insulated experimental vs. uninsulated control). Hygrothermal simulations were run on the original and retrofitted assemblies using measured site environmental data, both to assess durability risks, and for comparison with the measured data. Durability risks examined included potential for freeze-thaw damage and interstitial condensation. The effect of thermal bridging through structural elements was examined with both cold weather infrared thermography and two-dimensional thermal simulations.
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